According to a research undertaken by the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, almost 82 percent of critical Covid patients, including those who required mechanical ventilation, showed Abnormal Lung Function three months after ICU release (PGIMER).
Out of the 114 patients contacted, 21 patients (18.4%) died within the first three months after being discharged from the ICU.
Even after being discharged, survivors with Covid-19 pneumonia may have chronic lung impairment and poor physical and mental health. The PGIMER research compared the outcomes of patients who received non-invasive oxygen treatment against invasive mechanical ventilation during their ICU stay in terms of pulmonary function, mental health, and quality of life (QOL).
From May 1 to July 31, patients over the age of 18 with mild to severe Covid-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who had completed three months post-ICU release were concurrently included. From January 1 to April 30, 2021, 145 of the 189 patients hospitalized to the ICU were released. Thirty-one were lost due to a lack of follow-up.
The remaining 114 patients were contacted telephonically at three months post-discharge. Twenty-one patients had died within the first three months post-ICU discharge.
Among the 93 survivors, 81 reported to the hospital to participate in the study. Of them, only 74 patients could successfully complete the study. In the study, 61 (82%) patients had abnormal lung function at three months post-ICU discharge.
In the study, the researchers found that the majority of patients receiving non-invasive oxygen therapy, and all patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation had a restrictive pattern on spirometry.
Restrictive lung disease is characterised by a decrease in the total volume of air that the lungs are able to hold, and is often due to a decrease in the elasticity of the lungs themselves or caused by a problem related to the expansion of the chest wall during inhalation.
The researchers concluded that the patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) have a greater risk of impaired pulmonary function and reduced QOL post-ICU discharge.